Short Term Consultancy for Development of a Research Paper on Transparency and Accountability in Kenya’s Health Financing Models

ASSIGNMENT: Short Term Consultancy for Development of a Research Paper on Transparency and Accountability in Kenya’s Health Financing Models
DURATION: 10 days
POSTING DATE: 18/10/2018


Transparency International Kenya (TI-Kenya) is a not-for-profit organisation founded in 1999 in Kenya with the aim of developing a transparent and corruption free society through good governance and social justice initiatives. TI-Kenya is one of the autonomous chapters of the global Transparency International movement that are all bound by a common vision of a world in which government, business, civil society and the daily lives of people are free of corruption.

The Constitution of Kenya under the Bill of Rights puts a heavy responsibility on the State to ensure equitable, affordable and quality health care to all citizens. The right to health as espoused under the Constitution refers to the highest attainable standards and in so doing obligates the state to surpass internationally set standards. The Constitution also provides a conducive overarching legal framework for ensuring more comprehensive and people-driven, rights–based approach to health. The Constitution makes citizen participation an integral part of Kenya’s  governance system. Participation of the people is recognized in Article 10 of the Constitution of Kenya as one of our national values and principles of governance. Further Article 174(c) provides that the object of devolution is to: “enhance the participation of people in the exercise of the powers of the State and in making decisions affecting them.”

Notwithstanding the Constitutional requirements and safeguards for the right to health services, the highest attainable health standards and public participation, there continues to be persistent inadequacies in the health sector that have faced Kenya since independence. The Health Sector in Kenya has struggled with stagnant or declining budgets for health, system inefficiencies,
human resource deficiencies, and unaffordable quality health services. Transparency and Accountability especially on resources for the Health sector has also been wanting. In 2017 for instance, the Health Sector witnessed major challenges flowing from
industrial unrests by health practitioners, corruption and poor service delivery leading to wastage of public funds. The U.S. Embassy to Kenya on May 9, 2017 reported the suspension of approximately $21 million (2.1 billion KSH) in assistance to the Kenyan Ministry of Health. According to the U.S government, these drastic measures resulted due to ongoing concerns
about reports of corruption and weak accounting procedures at the Ministry.
It is in view of the shortcomings identified in achieving Kenyans’ health goals as set out in the Constitution and other policy and legal frameworks that the need to assess the effectiveness of health financing models in Kenya is necessary. The research paper will be important in identifying the various health financing models in existence including through the Kenya National and
County Budgets, the National Health Insurance Fund, Private Health Insurance Companies, Development Partners(Including Donors, Faith Based and Non-Governmental Organisations) and Public Private Partnerships. The research paper will also seek to determine how each of the identified models and avenues for health financing respond to Transparency and Accountability principles as elucidated in the Constitution including: access to information, public participation and value for money.


This consultancy’s main objective is to engage a consultant for a short-term study and development of a research paper on Transparency and Accountability in Kenya’s Health Financing Models.


  1. Identify and explain the various health financing models in use in Kenya.
  2. Evaluate the feasibility and attractiveness of the various models according to the
    following categories:

    • Enabling Environment: any laws, policies, rules, or regulations, at both a
      national and county-level, that might impede the effectiveness of the various
      health financing models.
    • Access to Information: the extent to which the identified health financing
      models are structured towards ensuring attainment of the highest attainable
      health standards including ensuring equitable, affordable and quality health
      care to all citizens.
    • Public participation: the extent to which public health financing models
      allow for effective public participation in their formation and implementation
      including transparency, accountability and feedback mechanisms.
    • Value for money: how the various health financing models respond to the
      need to ensure value for money in provision of services and health resources.
    • Recommend the most appropriate model(s), if any, with workable strategies
      identified to enhance people centred transparency and accountability
      principles in the health financing models.

Expected Outputs

The expected outputs from this consultancy are as follows:

  1. Develop a research paper on the effectiveness of the Health Financing Models in Kenya;
  2. Engage various stakeholders in contributing to and validating the research paper;
  3. Develop a working paper on the strategies identified to enhance a people centred approach, transparency and accountability in the health financing models;

Consultant’s Skills and Qualifications

Successful applicants will have the following competencies:

  • A postgraduate qualification in an area related to Research and Public Policy Development, Governance and Economic Development. Experience in Health Sector Governance will be an added advantage;
  • Extensive (over 5 years) knowledge and experience in conducting similar exercises preferably in the NGO and/or health sector.
  • Similar work in the last 3 years.
  • A demonstrated high level of professionalism and an ability to work independently and in
    high-pressure situations under tight deadlines.
  • Strong interpersonal and communication skills.
  • High proficiency in written and spoken English.
  • Deadline driven with a focus on results.
  • A person of high integrity that will model TI-Kenya’s core values.

Applications should include:

  1. A cover letter that provides reasoning for why the applicant is best suited to deliver
    against the Terms of Reference.
  2. Technical bid with methodology proposed.
  3. A brief work plan and financial proposal to deliver against the Terms of Reference, (1-2 pages.)
  4. CV or Resume of the consultant, and
  5. A sample of recently completed similar work previously conducted (hard copies or online link).

Contract Duration

10 days

Assurance of Confidentiality

All deliberations relating to this work, including all information collected from various meetings/documents shall be kept confidential and shall not be divulged to any third party either verbally or in writing or in any other form.

Logistics and Procedures

Transparency International Kenya will be responsible for paying the consultant all lawful costs incurred in the course of the consultancy.

Complaints Process

This call for Expression of Interest does not constitute a solicitation and TI-Kenya reserves the right to change or cancel the requirement at any time during the EOI process. TI-Kenya also reserves the right to require compliance with additional conditions as and when issuing the final solicitation documents. Submitting a reply to a call for EOI does not automatically guarantee receipt of the solicitation documents when issued. Invitations to bid or requests for proposals will be issued in accordance with TI-Kenya rules and procedures. Any grievances and or complaints arising from the evaluation process and final tender award can be addressed, in writing, to the Executive Director and the TI-Kenya Tender Complaints Committee.

Application Procedure

If you meet the above requirements, kindly send your portfolio (including your profile, CV and
references) to

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